Corona viruses are enveloped, single-stranded RNA (Ribonucleic acid) viruses, and they cause pandemic diseases having a devastating effect on both human healthcare and the global economy. To date, six corona viruses have been identified as pathogenic organisms, which are significantly responsible for the infection and cause severe respiratory diseases. Among them, the novel SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2) caused a major outbreak of coronavirus diseases in 2019 (COVID-19). Coronaviridae family members can affect both humans and animals. In humans, coronaviruses cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome with mild to severe outcomes. Several structural and genomics aspects have been investigated, and the genome encodes about 30 proteins most of them with unknown function though they share remarkable sequence identity with other proteins. There are no potent drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and several trials are underway to investigate the possible therapeutic agents against viral infection. However, some of the antiviral drugs that have been investigated against SARS-CoV-2 are under clinical trials. In the current review, we comparatively emphasize the emergence and pathogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 and their infection, and discuss the various putative drug targets of both viral and host receptors for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to overcome the viral outbreak.
Keywords: ACE2; Coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; antiviral agents; cancer drug targets; zoonotic diseases.
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