Emerging Benefits: Pathophysiological Functions and Target Drugs of the Sigma-1 Receptor in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Nov;58(11):5649-5666. doi: 10.1007/s12035-021-02524-5. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Abstract

The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene and is a nonopioid transmembrane receptor located in the mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM). It helps to locate endoplasmic reticulum calcium channels, regulates calcium homeostasis, and acts as a molecular chaperone to control cell fate and participate in signal transduction. It plays an important role in protecting neurons through a variety of signaling pathways and participates in the regulation of cognition and motor behavior closely related to neurodegenerative diseases. Based on its neuroprotective effects, Sig-1R has now become a breakthrough target for alleviating Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. This article reviews the most cutting-edge research on the function of Sig-1R under normal or pathologic conditions and target drugs of the sigma-1 receptor in neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: MAM; Neurodegenerative; SIGMAR1; Sigma-1 receptor; Target drugs.

Publication types

  • Review