The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene and is a nonopioid transmembrane receptor located in the mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM). It helps to locate endoplasmic reticulum calcium channels, regulates calcium homeostasis, and acts as a molecular chaperone to control cell fate and participate in signal transduction. It plays an important role in protecting neurons through a variety of signaling pathways and participates in the regulation of cognition and motor behavior closely related to neurodegenerative diseases. Based on its neuroprotective effects, Sig-1R has now become a breakthrough target for alleviating Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. This article reviews the most cutting-edge research on the function of Sig-1R under normal or pathologic conditions and target drugs of the sigma-1 receptor in neurodegenerative diseases.
Keywords: MAM; Neurodegenerative; SIGMAR1; Sigma-1 receptor; Target drugs.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.