The associations of incarceration and depression with healthcare experiences and utilization among Black men who have sex with men in HPTN 061

AIDS Care. 2022 Sep;34(9):1169-1178. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2021.1966695. Epub 2021 Aug 12.


Associations of incarceration with healthcare access and utilization among Black sexual minority men (BSMM) and differences in association among those with and without pre-incarceration symptoms of depression were measured. Secondary analysis using survey data from the longitudinal cohort HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study was conducted among 1553 BSMM from six major U.S. cities from 2009 to 2011. We used modified log-binomial regression with robust standard errors to estimate associations of incarceration (reported at 6 month follow-up) on next six-month healthcare utilization and access (reported at the 12 month follow-up). We tested the significance of baseline depressive symptoms by incarceration interaction and reported differences in associations when observed. Participants with a history of incarceration were more likely to have depressive symptoms at baseline compared to those without. Recent incarceration was associated with almost twice the risk of mistrust in healthcare providers and emergency room utilization. Among men reporting depressive symptoms, a history of incarceration was associated with almost tripled risk of reporting providers do not communicate understandably. Among those with depression, one in five reported a missed visit regardless of incarceration status.

Keywords: Black sexual minority men; Health care utilization; depression; health care access; incarceration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Depression / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections*
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities*