Toward personalized treatment approaches for non-small-cell lung cancer

Nat Med. 2021 Aug;27(8):1345-1356. doi: 10.1038/s41591-021-01450-2. Epub 2021 Aug 12.


Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Molecular targeted therapies and immunotherapies for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have improved outcomes markedly over the past two decades. However, the vast majority of advanced NSCLCs become resistant to current treatments and eventually progress. In this Perspective, we discuss some of the recent breakthrough therapies developed for NSCLC, focusing on immunotherapies and targeted therapies. We highlight our current understanding of mechanisms of resistance and the importance of incorporating genomic analyses into clinical studies to decipher these further. We underscore the future role of neoadjuvant and maintenance combination therapy approaches to potentially cure early disease. A major challenge to successful development of rational combination therapies will be the application of robust predictive biomarkers for clear-cut patient stratification, and we provide our views on clinical research areas that could influence how NSCLC will be managed over the coming decade.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy*
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Lung Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Precision Medicine*