A Versatile and Robust Platform for the Scalable Manufacture of Biomimetic Nanovaccines

Adv Sci (Weinh). 2021 May 1;8(15):2002020. doi: 10.1002/advs.202002020. eCollection 2021 Aug.


Biomimetic strategies are useful for designing potent vaccines. Decorating a nanoparticulate adjuvant with cell membrane fragments as the antigen-presenting source exemplifies, such as a promising strategy. For translation, a standardizable, consistent, and scalable approach for coating nanoadjuvant with the cell membrane is important. Here a turbulent mixing and self-assembly method called flash nanocomplexation (FNC) for producing cell membrane-coated nanovaccines in a scalable manner is demonstrated. The broad applicability of this FNC technique compared with bulk-sonication by using ten different core materials and multiple cell membrane types is shown. FNC-produced biomimetic nanoparticles have promising colloidal stability and narrow particle polydispersity, indicating an equal or more homogeneous coating compared to the bulk-sonication method. The potency of a nanovaccine comprised of B16-F10 cancer cell membrane decorating mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with the adjuvant CpG is then demonstrated. The FNC-fabricated nanovaccines when combined with anti-CTLA-4 show potency in lymph node targeting, DC antigen presentation, and T cell immune activation, leading to prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in a melanoma mouse model. This study advances the design of a biomimetic nanovaccine enabled by a robust and versatile nanomanufacturing technique.

Keywords: biomimetics; cancer vaccine; cell membrane; flash nanocomplexation; mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation / drug effects
  • Biomimetics
  • CTLA-4 Antigen / antagonists & inhibitors
  • CTLA-4 Antigen / immunology*
  • Cancer Vaccines / immunology
  • Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Dendritic Cells / drug effects
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Humans
  • Lymph Nodes / drug effects
  • Lymph Nodes / immunology
  • Melanoma, Experimental / immunology
  • Melanoma, Experimental / prevention & control*
  • Mice
  • Nanoparticles / therapeutic use*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • Cancer Vaccines