Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (ANX) share core symptoms such as negative affect and often co-exist. Magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) research suggests shared neuroanatomical/neurofunctional underpinnings. So far, studies considering transdiagnostic and disorder-specific neural alterations in MDD and ANX as well as the comorbid condition (COM) have not been reviewed systematically.
Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, the literature was screened and N = 247 articles were checked according to the PICOS criteria: MRI studies investigating transdiagnostic (across MDD, ANX, COM compared to healthy controls) and/or disorder-specific (between MDD, ANX, COM) neural alterations. N = 35, thereof n = 13 structural MRI and diffusion-tensor imaging studies and n = 22 functional MRI studies investigating emotional, cognitive deficits and resting state were included and quality coded.
Results: Results indicated transdiagnostic structural/functional alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex/middle frontal cortex and in limbic regions (amygdala, cingulum, hippocampus). Few and inconsistent disorder-specific alterations were reported. However, depression-specific functional alterations were reported for the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during emotional tasks, and limbic regions at rest. Preliminary results for anxiety-specific functional alterations were found in the insula and frontal regions during emotional tasks, in the inferior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus during cognitive tasks, and (para)limbic alterations at rest.
Conclusions: This review provides evidence to support existing transdiagnostic fronto-limbic neural models in MDD and ANX. On top, it expands existing knowledge taking into account comorbidity and comparing MDD with ANX. Heterogeneous evidence exists for disorder-specific alterations. Research focusing on ANX sub-types, and the consideration of COM would contribute to a better understanding of basic neural underpinnings.
Keywords: Anxiety disorder; Comorbidity; Magnetic-resonance imaging; Major depressive disorder; Systematic review.
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