The efficacious application of lignocellulosic biomass for the new valuable chemicals generation curbs the excessive dependency on fossil fuels. Among the various techniques available, pyrolysis has garnered much attention for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass (encompasses cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components) into product of solid, liquid and gases by thermal decomposition in an efficient manner. Pyrolysis conversion mechanism can be outlined as formation of char, depolymerisation, fragmentation and other secondary reactions. This paper gives a deep insight about the pyrolytic behavior of the lignocellulosic components accompanied by its by-products. Also several parameters such as reaction environment, temperature, residence time and heating rate which has a great impact on the pyrolysis process are also elucidated in a detailed manner. In addition the environmental and economical facet of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis for commercialization at industrial scale is critically analyzed. This article also illustrates the prevailing challenges and inhibition in implementing lignocellulosic biomass based pyrolysis with possible solution.
Keywords: Bio-oil; Biochar; Cellulose; Hemicellulose; Lignin; Pyrolysis.
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