Background and aims: Severe indeterminate acute hepatitis (sIAH) is a poorly understood rare disease with no specific therapy. This study aims to define the clinicopathological characteristics of sIAH and the role of liver biopsy in determining prognosis.
Methods: Patients with sIAH admitted to a single center between 2010 and 2019 were included. Histopathological patterns of liver biopsies were reviewed by 2 histopathologists, and key findings further were specified by multiplex immunofluorescence. Patients that died or underwent liver transplantation were analyzed as nonsurvivors.
Results: Of 294 patients with acute hepatitis, 43 with sIAH were included. Seventeen (39.5%) underwent liver transplantation and 7 (16.2%) died within 3 months. Multilobular necrosis was the predominant histopathological feature, being significantly more frequent in nonsurvivors (62.5% vs 21.1%; P = .016). Necrotic areas showed low HNF4α and Ki67 expression but high expression of CK19 and cell death markers identifying areas of severe tissue injury and inadequate regenerative response. Patients with multilobular necrosis had higher international normalized ratio, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-Sodium scores compared with those without (P values for all markers <.05). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that multilobular necrosis (hazard ratio, 3.675; 95% confidence interval, 1.322-10.211) and lower body mass index (hazard ratio, 0.916; 95% confidence interval, 0.848-0.991) independently predicted death or transplantation.
Conclusions: The results of this study provide novel insights into the important role of liver biopsy in sIAH patients, suggesting that the presence of multilobular necrosis is an early indicator of poor prognosis.
Keywords: Histopathology; Indeterminate Hepatitis; Multiplex Immunofluorescence.
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