Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by a chronic inflammatory process often associated with comorbid asthma. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of single T helper (TH) cells from nasal polyps of patients with CRSwNP and validated these findings using multiparameter flow cytometry. Polyp tissue contained suppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells, TH2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, and three transcriptionally distinct subsets of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells (CD4+ CTL). GATA3 expression was a feature of polyp Treg cells, whereas TH2 cells highly expressed TCN1, CD200R, and HPGDS and were enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism. Only a portion of polyp TH2 cells expressed the prostaglandin D2 receptor CRTH2, whereas a subpopulation of CD109+CRTH2- TH2 cells expressed mRNA for common inhibitor receptors including LAG3 and TIM3 and produced IL-10. Together, we resolved the complexity of TH cells in patients with CRSwNP, identifying several distinct clusters of CD4+ CTL and a population of CD109+CRTH2- TH2 cells with putative regulatory potential.
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