The causes and consequences of paediatric kidney disease on adult nephrology care

Pediatr Nephrol. 2022 Jun;37(6):1245-1261. doi: 10.1007/s00467-021-05182-w. Epub 2021 Aug 13.


Adult nephrologists often look after patients who have been diagnosed with kidney disease in childhood. This does present unique challenges to the adult nephrologist, who may be unfamiliar with the underlying cause of kidney disease as well as the complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that may have accumulated during childhood. This review discusses common causes of childhood CKD, in particular congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD), polycystic kidney disease, hereditary stone disease, nephrotic syndrome and atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The long-term consequences of childhood CKD, such as the cardiovascular consequences, cognition and education as well as bone health, nutrition and growth are also discussed.

Keywords: CKD; Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT); Nephrotic; Transition.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Kidney / abnormalities
  • Nephrology*
  • Polycystic Kidney Diseases*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / diagnosis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / etiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / therapy
  • Urinary Tract* / abnormalities