Twelve-Month Systemic Consequences of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Patients Discharged From Hospital: A Prospective Cohort Study in Wuhan, China

Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 10;74(11):1953-1965. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab703.


Background: Follow-up study of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has rarely been reported. We aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in the characteristics of COVID-19 survivors after discharge.

Methods: A total of 594 COVID-19 survivors discharged from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from February 10 to April 30, 2020 were included and followed up until May 17, 2021. Laboratory and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, symptoms and signs were analyzed.

Results: 257 (51.2%) patients had at least one symptom at 3 months post-discharge, which decreased to 169 (40.0%) and 138 (28.4%) at 6-month and 12-month visit respectively. During follow-up period, insomnia, chest tightness, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms. Most laboratory parameters returned to normal, whereas increased incidence of abnormal liver and renal function and cardiovascular injury was evidenced after discharge. Fibrous stripes (213; 42.4%), pleural thickening and adhesions (188; 37.5%) and enlarged lymph nodes (120; 23.9%) were the most common radiographical findings at 3 months post-discharge. The abnormalities of pulmonary function included obstructive, restrictive, and mixed, which were 5.5%, 4.0%, 0.9% at 6 months post, and 1.9%, 4.7%, 0.2% at 12 months. Electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred in 256 (51.0%) patients at 3 months post-discharge, including arrhythmia, ST-T change and conduction block, which increased to 258 (61.1%) cases at 6-month visit and were maintained at high frequency (242;49.8%) at 12-month visit.

Conclusions: Physiological, laboratory, radiological, or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, and liver functions are common in patients who recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) up to 12 months post-discharge.

Keywords: COVID-19; consequences; follow-up.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aftercare
  • COVID-19*
  • China / epidemiology
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Patient Discharge
  • Prospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2