Artificial Intelligence for Diagnosis and Gleason Grading of Prostate Cancer in Biopsies-Current Status and Next Steps

Eur Urol Focus. 2021 Jul;7(4):687-691. doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2021.07.002. Epub 2021 Aug 12.


Diagnosis and Gleason grading of prostate cancer in biopsies are critical for the clinical management of men with prostate cancer. Despite this, the high grading variability among pathologists leads to the potential for under- and overtreatment. Artificial intelligence (AI) systems have shown promise in assisting pathologists to perform Gleason grading, which could help address this problem. In this mini-review, we highlight studies reporting on the development of AI systems for cancer detection and Gleason grading, and discuss the progress needed for widespread clinical implementation, as well as anticipated future developments. PATIENT SUMMARY: This mini-review summarizes the evidence relating to the validation of artificial intelligence (AI)-assisted cancer detection and Gleason grading of prostate cancer in biopsies, and highlights the remaining steps required prior to its widespread clinical implementation. We found that, although there is strong evidence to show that AI is able to perform Gleason grading on par with experienced uropathologists, more work is needed to ensure the accuracy of results from AI systems in diverse settings across different patient populations, digitization platforms, and pathology laboratories.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Gleason grading; Histopathology; Prostate cancer; Uropathology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Artificial Intelligence*
  • Biopsy
  • Humans
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
  • Male
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Prostatic Neoplasms* / pathology