Several bedside and laboratory neuromonitoring tools are currently used in neonatal encephalopathy (NE) to assess 1) brain function [amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) and EEG], 2) cerebral oxygenation delivery and consumption [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)] and 3) blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. The aim of the review is to provide the role of neuromonitoring in understanding the development of brain injury in these newborns and better predict their long-term outcome. Simultaneous use of these monitoring modalities may improve our ability to provide meaningful prognostic information regarding ongoing treatments. Evidence will be summarized in this review for each of these modalities, by describing (1) the methods, (2) the clinical evidence in context of NE both before and with hypothermia, and (3) the research and future directions.
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