The Continued Challenges in the Diagnosis of Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: Focus on Clinically Mild Disease

J Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 16;224(12 Suppl 2):S75-S79. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiab158.


Many women with lower genital tract infections associated with sexually transmitted pathogens have evidence of upper genital tract inflammation despite the absence of symptoms and signs traditionally associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). New biomarkers are needed to identify these women with clinically mild PID or subclinical PID (silent salpingitis) to facilitate initiation of early treatment and ameliorate the sequelae associated with upper genital tract infection and inflammation.

Keywords: PID diagnosis; biomarkers; endometritis; pelvic inflammatory disease; salpingitis.

MeSH terms

  • Endometritis / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / etiology*
  • Salpingitis* / pathology
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / complications*
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / diagnosis
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / microbiology
  • Vagina / microbiology*