Recommendations on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testosterone deficiency in men

Aging Male. 2021 Dec;24(1):119-138. doi: 10.1080/13685538.2021.1962840.


The relative proportional increase of the elderly population within many countries will become one of the most significant social transformations of the twenty-first century and, for the first time in history, persons aged 65 or above outnumbered children under five years of age globally. One in four persons living in Europe and Northern America will be aged 65 or over. One of the goals of ISSAM is to raise awareness of the special health needs of older men. Since a significant number of aging men will eventually become testosterone deficient, the Hypogonadism panel of ISSAM updates its guidelines.

Keywords: Testosterone; hypogonadism; late-onset; men; testosterone deficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aging
  • Child, Preschool
  • Europe
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism* / diagnosis
  • Hypogonadism* / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Testosterone / therapeutic use


  • Testosterone