Anti-drug antibodies to antibody-based therapeutics in multiple sclerosis

Hum Antibodies. 2021;29(4):255-262. doi: 10.3233/HAB-210453.


Multiple sclerosis is the major demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Relapsing MS can be treated by a number of approved monoclonal antibodies that currently target: CD20, CD25 (withdrawn), CD49d and CD52. These all target potentially pathogenic memory B cell subsets and perhaps functionally inhibit pathogenic T cell function. These consist of chimeric, humanized and fully human antibodies. However, despite humanization it is evident that all of these monoclonal antibodies can induce binding and neutralizing antibodies ranging from < 1% to over 80% within a year of treatment. Importantly, it is evident that monitoring these allow prediction of future treatment-failure in some individuals and treatment cessation and switching therefore potentially limiting disease breakthrough and disability accumulation. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to avoid hospitals, shortened infusion times and extended dose intervals have been implemented, importantly, subcutaneous delivery of alternative treatments or formulations have been developed to allow for home treatment. Therefore, hospital-based and remote monitoring of ADA could therefore be advantageous to optimize patient responses in the future.

Keywords: Multiple sclerosis; anti-drug antibodies; biologic disease modifying therapies; immunotherapy.

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • COVID-19*
  • Humans
  • Memory B Cells
  • Multiple Sclerosis* / drug therapy
  • Pandemics
  • SARS-CoV-2


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized