Transgender Scrotoplasty and Perineal Reconstruction With Labia Majora Flaps: Technique and Outcomes From 147 Consecutive Cases

Ann Plast Surg. 2021 Sep 1;87(3):324-330. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000002602.


Purpose: Labia majora, the embryologic homologs of the scrotum, are ideal donor tissue for transgender scrotoplasty. The technique is detailed, and surgical outcomes are assessed for scrotoplasty using labia majora rotational advancement flaps.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes of phalloplasty patients who underwent either primary or secondary labia majora flap scrotoplasty and perineal reconstruction from October 1, 2017, to December 1, 2019. Bilateral elevation and rotational flap advancement from the posterior to anterior position formed a pouch-like scrotum. Perineal reconstruction involved multilayered closure with apposition of the inner thigh skin.

Results: The mean follow-up was 12.5 months (0.5-26 months). One hundred forty-seven scrotoplasties were performed. Of the 147 total scrotoplasty patients, 133 had labia majora flap scrotoplasty and perineal reconstruction with single-stage phalloplasty. Distal flap necrosis occurred in 6 patients (4.1%); 5 were ipsilateral to the groin dissection required for phalloplasty. Large (>1 cm diameter) perineoscrotal junction dehiscence occurred in 7 patients (4.7%). All wounds were managed conservatively except for 3 patients who developed urethrocutaneous fistulas at the perineoscrotal junction. All 3 patients required fistula repair. Two (1.4%) scrotal hematomas and 3 (2.0%) perineal hematomas were seen; all required operative intervention.

Conclusions: Labia majora flap scrotoplasty via the bilateral rotational advancement technique and perineal reconstruction can be safely performed during phalloplasty. Minor wound complications are common and frequently heal with conservative management. Wounds that do not heal may be associated with urethral complications. Hematomas are rare but usually require operative intervention.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Surgical Flaps
  • Transgender Persons*
  • Vulva / surgery