Background: Hemorrhage with trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) and hyperfibrinolysis (HF) increases the mortality risk after severe trauma. While TIC at hospital admission is well studied, little is known about coagulopathy at the incident site. The aim of the study was to investigate coagulation disorders already present on scene.
Methods: In a prospective single-center observational study, blood samples of trauma patients obtained before and at hospital admission were analyzed. Data on rotational thromboelastometry, blood gas analysis, prehospital treatment, injury severity, in-hospital blood transfusions, and mortality were investigated according to the presence of coagulation disorders at the incident site. The patients were divided into three groups according to the presence of coagulation disorders (no coagulopathy, TIC, TIC with HF). In a subgroup analysis, patients with a Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy Clinical Score (TICCS) of ≥10 were investigated.
Results: Between August 2015 and February 2018, 148 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean Injury Severity Score was 22.1, and overall mortality was 7.4%. Trauma-induced coagulopathy and HF were already detectable at the incident site in 18.2% and 6.1%, respectively. Patients with HF had significantly altered circulation parameters with significant changes in pH, hemoglobin, lactate, and base excess at the incident site. In patients with TICCS of ≥10 (14.2%), TIC was detected in 47.6% of the cases and HF in 28.6%. Furthermore, in these patients, blood gas parameters significantly changed and the need for blood transfusion and mortality.
Conclusion: Trauma-induced coagulopathy and HF can be detected in severely injured patients even before medical treatment is started. Furthermore, in patients with HF and TICCS of ≥10, blood gas parameters were significantly changed at the incident site.
Level of evidence: Prognostic study, level III.
Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.