Two Medicinal Plants (Alkanna trichophila and Convolvulus galaticus) from Turkey: Chemical Characterization and Biological Perspectives

Chem Biodivers. 2021 Oct;18(10):e2100356. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.202100356. Epub 2021 Sep 7.


The aim of the present study was to quantify selected phenolic compounds, determine antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitory effects of the aerial parts of Alkanna trichophylla Hub.-Mor. (A. trichophylla) and Convolvulus galaticus Rost.ex Choisy (C. galaticus) extracts prepared by homogenizer-assisted extraction (HAE), maceration (MAC) and infusion techniques. This is the first time such study has been designed to validate the phytochemical composition and bioactivity of these plants. Multivariate analysis was conducted on collected data. Rutin and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives were the most significant compounds in A. trichophylla and C. galaticus, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity of A. trichophylla was mostly exhibited by HAE/methanolic extracts as determined by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP (51.39, 112.70 and 145.73 mg TE/g, respectively) and phosphomolybdenum (2.05 mmol TE/g) assays. However, significant antioxidant activities varied within the extracts of C. galaticus. HAE/methanolic extract of A. trichophylla significantly depressed AChE (2.70 mg GALAE/g), BChE (5.53 mg GALAE/g) and tyrosinase (26.34 mg KAE/g) activities and that of C. galaticus inhibited AChE (2.04 mg GALAE/g), tyrosinase (31.25 mg KAE/g) and α-amylase (0.53 mmol ACAE/g) activities significantly. We concluded that HAE was the most efficient extraction technique as high yield of compounds and promising bioactivities were recorded from extracts prepared. Multivariate analysis showed that types of solvents influenced recovery of compounds and biological activities. This research study can be used as one methodological starting point for further investigation on these plants as all results are clearly promising and open the door to further research challenges such as cytotoxicity evaluation, molecular docking analysis, and more screening of pharmacological actions.

Keywords: HPLC-MS/MS; Medicinal plants; antioxidants; caffeoylquinic acid derivatives; enzymes; herbal medicine; rutin.

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcholinesterase / metabolism
  • Agaricales / enzymology
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Benzothiazoles / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Biphenyl Compounds / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Boraginaceae / chemistry*
  • Butyrylcholinesterase / metabolism
  • Convolvulus / chemistry*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / isolation & purification
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism
  • Picrates / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plants, Medicinal / chemistry*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / enzymology
  • Sulfonic Acids / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Turkey
  • alpha-Amylases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • alpha-Amylases / metabolism


  • Antioxidants
  • Benzothiazoles
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Picrates
  • Plant Extracts
  • Sulfonic Acids
  • 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase
  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Butyrylcholinesterase
  • alpha-Amylases