1. The 4-fluoro analogue of the monoamine oxidase-inhibiting antidepressant tranylcypromine was compared to the parent drug with regard to the following: inhibition of monoamine oxidases A and B in vitro and ex vivo; levels of both drugs in brain, liver, and blood after injection of equimolar doses; and effects on brain levels of the amines 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. 2. 4-Fluorotranylcypromine was found to be 10 times more potent than tranylcypromine at inhibiting monoamine oxidases A and B in vitro in rat brain homogenates. 3. After administration (0.1 mmol/kg, ip), 4-fluorotranylcypromine attained higher brain and liver levels and provided greater availability than did tranylcypromine after the injection of an equimolar amount. 4. At the dose employed, the ex vivo monoamine oxidases A and B inhibitory profiles in brain and liver over a 24-hr period following tranylcypromine and 4-fluorotranylcypromine treatment were not different from each other. 5. Although the drugs had similar effects on inhibition of brain MAO ex vivo, they differed from one another at several time intervals in the increases in concentrations of 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine produced in brain. 6. In conclusion, fluorination of tranylcypromine in the 4 position of the phenyl ring produced a drug which was more potent than the parent drug at inhibiting MAO in vitro and attained higher levels in brain than did tranylcypromine itself after intraperitoneal injection of equimolar amounts of the drugs. 4-Fluorotranylcypromine increased the concentrations of trace amines, catecholamines, and 5-hydroxytryptamine in brain at most time intervals following intraperitoneal injection, and at some time intervals there were differences from tranylcypromine with regard to the amine concentrations produced.