SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) vaccines structure, mechanisms and effectiveness: A review

Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Oct 1:188:740-750. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.076. Epub 2021 Aug 14.


The world has been suffering from COVID-19 disease for more than a year, and it still has a high mortality rate. In addition to the need to minimize transmission of the virus through non-pharmacological measures such as the use of masks and social distance, many efforts are being made to develop a variety of vaccines to prevent the disease worldwide. So far, several vaccines have reached the final stages of safety and efficacy in various phases of clinical trials, and some, such as Moderna/NIAID and BioNTech/Pfizer, have reported very high safety and protection. The important point is that comparing different vaccines is not easy because there is no set standard for measuring neutralization. In this study, we have reviewed the common platforms of COVID-19 vaccines and tried to present the latest reports on the effectiveness of these vaccines.

Keywords: Adenovirus; Covid-19; Effectiveness; Inactivated; Infection; Sars-Cov-2; Vaccine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • COVID-19 / immunology
  • COVID-19 / prevention & control*
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / chemistry
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunogenicity, Vaccine
  • Protein Subunits / immunology
  • SARS-CoV-2 / physiology
  • Vaccines, DNA / immunology
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology
  • mRNA Vaccines


  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Protein Subunits
  • Vaccines, DNA
  • Vaccines, Synthetic