Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and construct validity of the Dutch Oxford Knee Score - Activity and Participation Questionnaire

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2021 Aug 17;22(1):700. doi: 10.1186/s12891-021-04521-0.


Background: Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) tend to be younger and tend to receive TKA at an earlier stage compared to 20 years ago. The Oxford Knee Score - Activity and Participation (OKS-APQ) questionnaire evaluates higher levels of activity and participation, reflecting activity patterns of younger or more active people. The purpose of this study was to translate the OKS-APQ questionnaire into Dutch, and to evaluate its measurement properties in pre- and postoperative TKA patients.

Methods: The OKS-APQ was translated and adapted according to the forward-backward translation multi step approach and tested for clinimetric quality. Floor and ceiling effects, structural validity, construct validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated using COSMIN quality criteria. The OKS-APQ, the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), the Short Form-36 (SF-36), a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) were assessed in 131 patients (72 preoperative and 59 postoperative TKA patients), and the OKS-APQ was administered twice in 50 patients (12 preoperative and 38 postoperative TKA patients), after an interval of minimal 2 weeks.

Results: Floor effects were observed in preoperative patients. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) indicated a good fit of a 1-factor model by the following indices: (Comparative Fit Index (CFI): 0.97, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI): 0.96 and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR): 0.03). Construct validity was supported as > 75% of the hypotheses were confirmed. Internal consistency (Cronbach α's from 0.81 to 0.95) was good in the pooled and separate pre- and postoperative samples and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) from 0.63 - 0.85) were good in postoperative patients and moderate in preoperative patients. The standard Error of Measurements (SEMs) ranged from 8.5 - 12.2 and the Smallest Detectable Changes in individuals (SDCind) ranged from 23.5 - 34.0 (on a scale from 0 to 100).

Conclusions: Preliminary findings suggest that the Dutch version of the OKS-APQ is reliable and valid for a Dutch postoperative TKA patient sample. However, in a preoperative TKA sample, the OKS-APQ seems less suitable, because of floor effects and lower test-retest reliability. The Dutch version of the OKS-APQ can be used alongside the OKS to discriminate among levels of activity and participation in postoperative patients.

Keywords: Dutch version; Oxford knee score – activity and participation questionnaire; Patient-reported outcome measure; Total knee arthroplasty; Translation; Validation.

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Cultural Comparison*
  • Humans
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee* / diagnosis
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee* / surgery
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Translations