Two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination induce robust immune responses to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern

Nat Commun. 2021 Aug 17;12(1):5061. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-25167-5.

Abstract

The extent to which immune responses to natural infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and immunization with vaccines protect against variants of concern (VOC) is of increasing importance. Accordingly, here we analyse antibodies and T cells of a recently vaccinated, UK cohort, alongside those recovering from natural infection in early 2020. We show that neutralization of the VOC compared to a reference isolate of the original circulating lineage, B, is reduced: more profoundly against B.1.351 than for B.1.1.7, and in responses to infection or a single dose of vaccine than to a second dose of vaccine. Importantly, high magnitude T cell responses are generated after two vaccine doses, with the majority of the T cell response directed against epitopes that are conserved between the prototype isolate B and the VOC. Vaccination is required to generate high potency immune responses to protect against these and other emergent variants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 / immunology
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / blood
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / immunology
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / isolation & purification
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / metabolism
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antibodies, Viral / immunology
  • COVID-19 / immunology*
  • COVID-19 / prevention & control*
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • COVID-19 Vaccines / immunology*
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Epitopes
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • SARS-CoV-2 / drug effects
  • SARS-CoV-2 / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology

Substances

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • COVID-19 Vaccines
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Epitopes
  • ACE2 protein, human
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2

Supplementary concepts

  • SARS-CoV-2 variants

Associated data

  • ISRCTN/ISRCTN10980107