NTRK1 gene-related congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis: a nationwide multicenter retrospective study

Neurogenetics. 2021 Oct;22(4):333-341. doi: 10.1007/s10048-021-00668-z. Epub 2021 Aug 17.


Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare autosomal recessive disease resulting from mutations in the NTRK1 gene encoding the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase-1 receptor. In this multicenter observational retrospective study, we investigated CIPA patients identified from French laboratories sequencing the NTRK1 gene, and seven patients were identified. Patients originated from France (2), Suriname (2), Mali (1), Kazakhstan (1), and Algeria (1). Mean age of patients was 9.8 years (4-20), four patients were female (57%), infant developmental milestones were delayed in four cases (57%), and four patients had a family history of consanguinity (57%). Mean age at diagnosis was 4.8 months (3-6), and all patients presented with pain insensitivity, anhidrosis, intellectual disability, self-mutilation, febrile episodes, impaired temperature perception, and autonomous nervous system impairment. Patients also showed an assortment of associated findings, including hyperactivity (86%), emotional lability (86%), joint deformities (71%), bone fractures (57%), abnormal sense of touch, vibration and position (50%), skin, hair and nails abnormalities (28%), and hypothermia episodes (28%). Two patients died at age 9 and 12 years from infection. In three cases, nerve conduction studies showed absent lower limbs sensory nerve action potentials. In one case, sensory nerve biopsy showed complete absence of unmyelinated fibers. Nine NTRK1 pathogenic variants were found, including three newly described mutations. This nationwide study confirms that NTRK1 gene-related CIPA is an extremely rare disorder and expands the genotypic spectrum of NTRK1 mutations.

Keywords: CIPA; Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis; NTRK1.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hypohidrosis / genetics*
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics
  • Male
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Pain / genetics*
  • Receptor, trkA / genetics*
  • Retrospective Studies


  • NTRK1 protein, human
  • Receptor, trkA