A New Risk Assessment Model for Hospital-Acquired Venous Thromboembolism in Critically Ill Children: A Report From the Children's Hospital-Acquired Thrombosis Consortium

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2022 Jan 1;23(1):e1-e9. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002826.


Objectives: To create a risk model for hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism in critically ill children upon admission to an ICU.

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: ICUs from eight children's hospitals throughout the United States.

Subjects: Critically ill children with hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (cases) 0-21 years old and similar children without hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism (controls) from January 2012 to December 2016. Children with a recent cardiac surgery, asymptomatic venous thromboembolism, or a venous thromboembolism diagnosed before ICU admission were excluded.

Interventions: None.

Measurements and main results: The multi-institutional Children's Hospital-Acquired Thrombosis registry was used to identify cases and controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism and putative risk factors present at or within 24 hours of ICU admission to develop the final model. A total of 548 hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism cases (median age, 0.8 yr; interquartile range, 0.1-10.2) and 187 controls (median age, 2.4 yr; interquartile range, 0.2-8.3) were analyzed. In the multivariable model, recent central venous catheter placement (odds ratio, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.7-7.1), immobility (odds ratio 3.6, 95% CI, 2.1-6.2), congenital heart disease (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI, 1.7-4.7), length of hospital stay prior to ICU admission greater than or equal to 3 days (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.6), and history of autoimmune/inflammatory condition or current infection (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4) were each independently associated with hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism. The risk model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.73-0.84).

Conclusions: Using the multicenter Children's Hospital-Acquired Thrombosis registry, we identified five independent risk factors for hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism in critically ill children, deriving a new hospital-acquired venous thromboembolism risk assessment model. A prospective validation study is underway to define a high-risk group for risk-stratified interventional trials investigating the efficacy and safety of prophylactic anticoagulation in critically ill children.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Critical Illness
  • Hospitals, Pediatric
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Thrombosis*
  • Venous Thromboembolism* / epidemiology
  • Venous Thromboembolism* / etiology
  • Young Adult