Importance: Dupilumab subcutaneous injection is approved for treating moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in adolescents, but there has been too little research on an efficacious systemic oral treatment with a favorable benefit-risk profile for adolescents with moderate-to-severe AD.
Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of oral abrocitinib plus topical therapy in adolescents with moderate-to-severe AD.
Design, setting, and participants: The phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study JADE TEEN was conducted in countries of the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, and North America in patients aged 12 to 17 years with moderate-to-severe AD and an inadequate response to 4 consecutive weeks or longer of topical medication or a need for systemic therapy for AD. The study was conducted between February 18, 2019, and April 8, 2020. The data were analyzed after study completion.
Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive once-daily oral abrocitinib, 200 mg or 100 mg, or placebo for 12 weeks in combination with topical therapy.
Main outcomes and measures: Coprimary end points were achievement of an Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) response of clear (0) or almost clear (1) with improvement of 2 or more grades from baseline (IGA 0/1) and 75% or greater improvement from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI-75) response at week 12. Key secondary end points included 4-point or greater improvement in Peak Pruritus Numerical Rating Scale (PP-NRS4) at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored.
Results: This study included 285 adolescents with moderate-to-severe AD (145 boys [50.9%] and 140 girls [49.1%]), of whom 160 (56.1%) were White and 94 (33.0%) were Asian; the median age was 15 years (interquartile range 13-17 years). Substantially more patients treated with abrocitinib (200 mg or 100 mg) vs placebo achieved an IGA response of 0/1 (46.2%; 41.6% vs 24.5%; P < .05 for both), EASI-75 (72.0%; 68.5% vs 41.5%; P < .05 for both), and PP-NRS4 (55.4%; 52.6% vs 29.8%; P < .01 for 200 mg vs placebo) at week 12. Adverse events were reported for 59 (62.8%), 54 (56.8%), and 50 (52.1%) patients in the 200 mg, 100 mg, and placebo groups, respectively; nausea was more common with abrocitinib, 200 mg (17 [18.1%]) and 100 mg (7 [7.4%]). Herpes-related AEs were infrequent; 1 (1.1%), 0, and 2 (2.1%) patients had serious AEs.
Conclusions and relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that oral abrocitinib combined with topical therapy was significantly more effective than placebo with topical therapy in adolescents with moderate-to-severe AD, with an acceptable safety profile.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03796676.