This study aimed to examine the risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) and the association of that with recurrence in JCOG0212. The results for secondary endpoints showed that compared with the mesorectal excision (ME) alone group, ME with lateral lymph node dissection (LLND) group showed significantly longer operative time and significantly higher blood loss. These results suggested that LLND was a risk factor for SSI. All 701 patients registered in JCOG0212 were analyzed in this study. Wound infection was defined as incisional/deep SSI, and pelvic abscess and anastomotic leakage were defined as organ/space SSI. The risk factors for the incidence of SSI and the effect of SSI on relapse-free survival (RFS) were investigated. Multivariable odds ratio of Grade 2 or higher all SSI was 0.58 [95% Confidence interval: 0.36-0.93] for female (vs. male) and that of Grade 2 or higher incisional/deep SSI was 2.24 [1.03-4.86] for blood infusion. For RFS, patients with Grade 3 or higher all SSI showed poor prognosis (multivariable hazard ratio: 1.66 [1.03-2.68]). LLND is not significant factor for the incidence of all SSI. Male sex might be a risk factor of Grade 2 or higher SSI, and blood transfusion is a possible risk factor of Grade 2 or higher incisional/deep SSI. Grade 3 or higher all SSI might be a significant worse prognostic factor for lower rectal cancer.
Keywords: Latera lymph node dissection; Rectal cancer; Recurrence; Surgical site infection.
© 2021. The Author(s).