Twenty of 30 patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) had major tracheobronchial abnormalities, which in 18 could be incriminated as contributing to their symptoms. There were 15 examples of tracheobronchial stenosis, 13 of tracheomalacia, nine of bronchomalacia, and one of tracheal web. Sixteen patients had operations. Tracheostomy was successful as a temporizing measure in ten patients although there was significant morbidity. Balloon dilatation of tracheobronchial stenosis produced temporary (2) or long-term (2) improvement in four patients. Electroresection of tracheobronchial stenosis was successful in the three instances it was employed. Lobectomy for lobar emphysema was curative in both patients. Aortopexy for tracheomalacia improved all three patients. We conclude that (1) symptomatic major airway lesions are not uncommon manifestations of BPD, (2) many of the lesions are amenable to surgical therapy, and (3) bronchoscopic evaluation should be considered early in the course of infants with BPD.