Optical emission-based phantom to verify coincidence of radiotherapy and imaging isocenters on an MR-linac

J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2021 Sep;22(9):252-261. doi: 10.1002/acm2.13377. Epub 2021 Aug 19.


Purpose: Demonstrate a novel phantom design using a remote camera imaging method capable of concurrently measuring the position of the x-ray isocenter and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) isocenter on an MR-linac.

Methods: A conical frustum with distinct geometric features was machined out of plastic. The phantom was submerged in a small water tank, and aligned using room lasers on a MRIdian MR-linac (ViewRay Inc., Cleveland, OH). The phantom physical isocenter was visualized in the MR images and related to the DICOM coordinate isocenter. To view the x-ray isocenter, an intensified CMOS camera system (DoseOptics LLC., Hanover, NH) was placed at the foot of the treatment couch, and centered such that the optical axis of the camera was coincident with the central axis of the treatment bore. Two or four 8.3mm x 24.1cm beams irradiated the phantom from cardinal directions, producing an optical ring on the conical surface of the phantom. The diameter of the ring, measured at the peak intensity, was compared to the known diameter at the position of irradiation to determine the Z-direction offset of the beam. A star-shot method was employed on the front face of the frustum to determine X-Y alignment of the MV beam. Known shifts were applied to the phantom to establish the sensitivity of the method.

Results: Couch translations, demonstrative of possible isocenter misalignments, on the order of 1mm were detectable for both the radiotherapy and MRI isocenters. Data acquired on the MR-linac demonstrated an average error of 0.28mm(N=10, R2 =0.997, σ=0.37mm) in established Z displacement, and 0.10mm(N=5, σ=0.34mm) in XY directions of the radiotherapy isocenter.

Conclusions: The phantom was capable of measuring both the MRI and radiotherapy treatment isocenters. This method has the potential to be of use in MR-linac commissioning, and could be streamlined to be valuable in daily constancy checks of isocenter coincidence.

Keywords: Cerenkov; Cherenkov; MRIgRT; QA; isocenter coincidence; scintillation; star shot.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Particle Accelerators*
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
  • Radiotherapy, Image-Guided*