Purpose: To assess the impact of abutment angulation on loosening torque, torque loss, and percentage of torque loss in the prosthesis and abutment screws after aging of the implant-supported prosthesis.
Materials and methods: Fifty epoxy maxillary casts with missing central, lateral, and canine teeth were used, and each cast received two implants. All casts were divided into five groups (n = 10): (1) both implants received straight abutments (0-0); (2) the central implant received a straight abutment and the canine implant received a 17.5-degree angled abutment (0-17.5); (3) the central implant received a straight abutment and the canine implant received a 35-degree angled abutment (0-35); (4) both implants received 17.5-degree angled abutments (17.5-17.5); and (5) both implants received 35-degree angled abutments (35-35). For each cast, a three-unit zirconia restoration was fabricated, and a torque meter was utilized to tighten the abutment screw (25 Ncm) and prosthesis screw (18 Ncm). The reverse torque value was recorded for each screw. All restorations were subjected to 3,500 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C and load cycled for 150,000 cycles with 50-N load. After the loosening torque was measured for each screw, the torque loss and percentage of torque loss were calculated.
Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the torque loss of the central prosthesis screw (P < .001) and canine prosthesis screw (P < .001) between study groups. The 35-35 group showed the highest percentage of torque loss, while the 0-0 group showed the lowest value. A significant difference was found regarding the torque loss of the central abutment screw (P < .001) and canine abutment screw (P < .001). The abutment screws of the 35-35 group showed the highest percentage of torque loss, while the 0-0 groups showed the lowest percentage of torque loss.
Conclusion: Screw loosening of the prosthesis and abutment screws increases with increasing abutment angulation after aging. In the same fixed prosthesis, the torque loss in the prosthesis and abutment screws was higher in canine screws employing different angled abutments.