Effects of prenatal chlorocholine chloride exposure on pubertal development and reproduction of male offspring in rats

Toxicol Lett. 2021 Oct 15:351:28-36. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2021.08.005. Epub 2021 Aug 16.


Chlorocholine chloride (CCC) promote plant growth as a regulator. Emerging evidence by our group showed that CCC might restrain the puberty onset and impair the reproductive functions in male rats through HPT axis. In this study, we further investigated the effects of prenatal CCC exposure on pubertal development, reproduction of male offspring in rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that CCC of 137.5 and 200 mg/kg bw/day delayed the age of preputial separation (PPS), decreased the sperm motility of male offspring. PP1γ2 which is an essential protein in spermatogenesis reduced in 137.5 and 200 mg/kg bw/day groups. Crucial hormones involved in hypothalamic-puititary-testicular (HPT) axis decreased at postnatal day (PND) 30. It was indicated that CCC exposure in pregnancy might disturb the pubertal development, reproductive functions of male offspring through HPT axis and disturb the sperm motility through PP1γ2.

Keywords: Chlorocholine chloride; Offspring reproduction; Prenatal exposure; Pubertal development.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chlormequat / toxicity*
  • Female
  • Infertility, Male / chemically induced*
  • Male
  • Plant Growth Regulators / toxicity*
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
  • Rats
  • Semen Analysis
  • Sexual Maturation / drug effects*
  • Sperm Motility / drug effects


  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Chlormequat