The Characteristics and Outcomes of Native Aortic Valve Thrombosis: A Systematic Review

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Aug 24;78(8):811-824. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.06.023.

Abstract

Background: There is a lack of knowledge in the current medical literature about native aortic valve thrombosis.

Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the characteristics, presentations, underlying etiologies, and outcomes of native aortic valve thrombosis and to present a meta-analysis of the best available data.

Methods: The authors performed a literature search, identified published cases of patients with native aortic valve thrombosis, and pooled the data in this meta-analysis. The statistical analysis included calculations of the prevalence of the various presentations, underlying etiologies, aortic cusp involvement, as well as choices of diagnostic testing. They calculated the sensitivities of the various diagnostic testing as well as in-hospital mortality event rates and the univariate ORs of the risk factors for poor outcomes.

Results: The search strategy and screening process yielded 74 cases of native aortic valve thrombosis, which are included in this meta-analysis. The data revealed that the most common presentation was myocardial infarction in 36%, and the most common underlying etiology was hypercoagulable state in 30%. In-hospital clinical deterioration after presentation including recurrent embolism occurred in ∼38%, and in-hospital mortality rate was ∼20%.

Conclusions: Native aortic valve thrombosis is clinically relevant, especially in patients presenting with embolic events. Awareness about native aortic valve or root thrombosis as well as its underlying etiologies, diagnostic work-up, and management is essential, because this condition can be associated with poor outcomes.

Keywords: cardiac source of embolism; native aortic valve thrombosis; systematic review.