Global Chronic Total Occlusion Crossing Algorithm: JACC State-of-the-Art Review

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Aug 24;78(8):840-853. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.05.055.


The authors developed a global chronic total occlusion crossing algorithm following 10 steps: 1) dual angiography; 2) careful angiographic review focusing on proximal cap morphology, occlusion segment, distal vessel quality, and collateral circulation; 3) approaching proximal cap ambiguity using intravascular ultrasound, retrograde, and move-the-cap techniques; 4) approaching poor distal vessel quality using the retrograde approach and bifurcation at the distal cap by use of a dual-lumen catheter and intravascular ultrasound; 5) feasibility of retrograde crossing through grafts and septal and epicardial collateral vessels; 6) antegrade wiring strategies; 7) retrograde approach; 8) changing strategy when failing to achieve progress; 9) considering performing an investment procedure if crossing attempts fail; and 10) stopping when reaching high radiation or contrast dose or in case of long procedural time, occurrence of a serious complication, operator and patient fatigue, or lack of expertise or equipment. This algorithm can improve outcomes and expand discussion, research, and collaboration.

Keywords: chronic total occlusion; global; percutaneous coronary intervention; treatment algorithm.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Coronary Angiography*
  • Coronary Occlusion / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Occlusion / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention*