Is the Sokal or EUTOS long-term survival (ELTS) score a better predictor of responses and outcomes in persons with chronic myeloid leukemia receiving tyrosine-kinase inhibitors?

Leukemia. 2022 Feb;36(2):482-491. doi: 10.1038/s41375-021-01387-y. Epub 2021 Aug 19.


Data from 1661 consecutive subjects with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) receiving initial imatinib (n = 1379) or a 2nd-generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (2G-TKI; n = 282) were interrogated to determine whether the Sokal or European Treatment and Outcome Study for CML (EUTOS) long-term survival (ELTS) scores were more accurate responses and outcome predictors. Both scores predicted probabilities of achieving complete cytogenetic response (CCyR), major molecular response (MMR), failure- and progression-free survivals (FFS, PFS), and survival in all subjects and those receiving imatinib therapy. However, the ELTS score was a better predictor of MR4, MR4.5, and CML-related survival than the Sokal score. In subjects receiving 2G-TKI therapy, only the ELTS score accurately predicted probabilities of CCyR, MMR, MR4, FFS, and PFS. In the propensity score matching, subjects classified as intermediate risk by the ELTS score receiving a 2G-TKI had better responses (p < 0.001~0.061), FFS (p = 0.002), and PFS (p = 0.03) but not survival. Our data suggest better overall prediction accuracy for the ELTS score compared with the Sokal score in CML patients, especially those receiving 2G-TKIs. People identified as intermediate risk by the ELTS score may benefit more from initial 2G-TKI therapy in achieving surrogate endpoints but not survival, especially when a briefer interval to stopping TKI therapy is the therapy objective.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy
  • Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / mortality*
  • Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nomograms*
  • Prognosis
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate
  • Young Adult


  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors