This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of single and multiple oral doses of enpatoran (formerly named M5049), a new toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 8 dual antagonist, and the effect of food on a single dose in healthy participants. In this single phase 1, randomized (3:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 96 participants received single and multiple ascending oral doses of enpatoran. Participants in single-dose cohorts received one dose of enpatoran (1, 3, 9, 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg) or placebo using a sentinel dosing strategy. Multiple-dose cohorts received enpatoran (9, 25, or 200 mg once daily, or 25 or 50 mg twice daily) or placebo for 14 days. Safety, tolerability, PK, and PD (ex vivo-stimulated cytokine secretion) were assessed in both parts. The effect of food was assessed in an open-label, one-way crossover study in the 25 mg single-dose cohort. Single- and multiple-oral doses of enpatoran up to 200 mg were well tolerated and no significant dose-limiting adverse events or safety signals were observed under fasting or fed conditions. PK parameters were linear and dose-proportional across the dose range evaluated, with a slightly delayed absorption and lower peak concentration observed at 25 mg with food. Exposure-dependent inhibition of ex vivo-stimulated interleukin-6 secretion was observed, with maximum inhibition at 200 mg. Enpatoran was well tolerated at doses up to 200 mg. Further investigation of enpatoran is warranted as a potential treatment for diseases driven by TLR7/8 overactivation, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and COVID-19 pneumonia.
Keywords: autoimmune diseases; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; safety; toll-like receptors.
© 2021 The Authors. Pharmacology Research & Perspectives published by British Pharmacological Society and American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.