Effect of inspiratory muscle training associated or not to physical rehabilitation in preoperative anatomic pulmonary resection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Support Care Cancer. 2022 Feb;30(2):1079-1092. doi: 10.1007/s00520-021-06467-4. Epub 2021 Aug 21.


Objective: The aim of this study is to systematically review the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) associated or not with physical rehabilitation in the preoperative period of anatomical pulmonary resection.

Methods: Search in the databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS and PEDro up to November 2019. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included in adults in the preoperative period of pulmonary resection. The selection of studies and data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers. The risk of bias assessed with RoB 2.0 and the quality of evidence with GRADE.

Prospero: CRD42018105859.

Results: Six RCTs were included; patients who underwent IMT in the preoperative period showed a significant improvement in functional capacity assessed by the 6-min walk test (6WT) (MD 28,93 [IC 95% 0,28; 57,58], p = 0,04, I2 = 0%) and significantly reduced the length of hospital stay (MD -3,63 [IC 95% -4,96; -2,29], p = 0,00, I2 = 0%). There was no significant difference between groups regarding pulmonary function, in postoperative complications such as pneumonia (RR 0,56 [IC 95% 0,29; 1,10], p = 0,09, I2 = 0%), atelectasis (RR 0,81 [IC 95% 0,24; 2,69], p = 0,72, I2 = 0%), mechanical ventilation > 48 h (RR 0,43 [IC 95% 0,12; 1,58], p = 0,20, I2 = 0%), in mortality (RR 0,33 [IC 95% 0,04; 3,12], p = 0,33, I2 = 0%), and quality of life.

Conclusion: IMT associated with physical exercise in the preoperative period of pulmonary resection improves functional capacity and reduces the length of hospital stay in the postoperative period.

Keywords: Breathing exercises; Lung neoplasms; Randomized controlled trial; Respiratory muscles.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Breathing Exercises
  • Humans
  • Length of Stay
  • Lung Neoplasms*
  • Muscles
  • Pulmonary Atelectasis*