Hsp27 and Hsp60 in human submandibular salivary gland: Quantitative patterns in healthy and cancerous tissues with potential implications for differential diagnosis and carcinogenesis

Acta Histochem. 2021 Sep;123(6):151771. doi: 10.1016/j.acthis.2021.151771. Epub 2021 Aug 19.


Tumors of the submandibular salivary gland (SMG) are uncommon but sufficiently frequent for the physician to consider them in routine examinations and for the pathologist to be prepared to differentiate them from other tissue abnormalities. However, scarcity of specimens makes training difficult, a situation compounded by the lack of accepted universal diagnostic guidelines. Furthermore, there is little information on the chaperone system (CS) of the gland, despite the increasing evidence of its participation in carcinogenesis as a biomarker for diagnosis and patient follow up, and in the mechanisms by which the tumor cells thrive. We are investigating this aspect of various tumors, and here we describe standardized methods for assessing the tissue levels of two chaperones, Hsp27 and Hsp60, in normal SMG and its tumors. We present illustrative results obtained with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence-confocal microscopy (IF-CM), which we propose as a platform onto which a data base could be built by adding new information and which would provide material for developing guidelines for tumor identification and monitoring. The initial findings are encouraging in as much as the tumors surveyed showed quantitative patterns of Hsp27 and Hsp60 that distinguished tumoral from normal tissue and certain tumors from the others, and the results from IHC were confirmed by IF-CM.

Keywords: Adenoid cystic carcinoma; Chaperone system; Hsp27; Hsp60; Pleomorphic adenoma; Submandibular salivary gland.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Carcinogenesis* / metabolism
  • Carcinogenesis* / pathology
  • Chaperonin 60 / metabolism*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mitochondrial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism*
  • Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism*
  • Submandibular Gland Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Submandibular Gland Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Submandibular Gland Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Submandibular Gland* / metabolism
  • Submandibular Gland* / pathology


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Chaperonin 60
  • HSPB1 protein, human
  • HSPD1 protein, human
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • Neoplasm Proteins