Dissecting the transcriptional program of phosphomannomutase 2-deficient cells: Lymphoblastoide B cell lines as a valuable model for congenital disorders of glycosylation studies

Glycobiology. 2022 Mar 19;32(2):84-100. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwab087.


Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) include 150 genetically and clinically heterogeneous diseases, showing significant glycoprotein hypoglycosylation that leads to pathological consequences in multiple organs and systems whose underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. A few cellular and animal models have been used to study specific CDG characteristics, although they have given limited information due to the few CDG mutations tested and the still missing comprehensive molecular and cellular basic research. Here, we provide specific gene expression profiles, based on ribonucleic acid (RNA) microarray analysis, together with some biochemical and cellular characteristics of a total of nine control Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (B-LCL) and 13 CDG B-LCL from patients carrying severe mutations in the phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2) gene, strong serum protein hypoglycosylation and neurological symptoms. Significantly dysregulated genes in PMM2-CDG cells included those regulating stress responses, transcription factors, glycosylation, motility, cell junction and, importantly, those related to development and neuronal differentiation and synapse, such as carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) and ADAM23. PMM2-CDG-associated biological consequences involved the unfolded protein response, RNA metabolism and the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria components. Changes in the transcriptional and CA2 protein levels are consistent with the CDG physiopathology. These results demonstrate the global transcriptional impact in phosphomannomutase 2-deficient cells, reveal CA2 as a potential cellular biomarker and confirm B-LCL as an advantageous model for CDG studies.

Keywords: B-lymphoblastoid cells; CA2; PMM2-CDG; congenital disorders of glycosylation; gene expression profile.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation* / genetics
  • Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation* / metabolism
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Infections*
  • Glycosylation
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics
  • Herpesvirus 4, Human / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Phosphotransferases (Phosphomutases) / deficiency
  • RNA / metabolism


  • RNA
  • Phosphotransferases (Phosphomutases)
  • phosphomannomutase

Supplementary concepts

  • Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 1A