Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 confer a high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA1 exon 11 (formally exon 10) is one of the largest exons and codes for the nuclear localization signals of the corresponding gene product. This exon can be partially or entirely skipped during pre-mRNA splicing, leading to three major in-frame isoforms that are detectable in most cell types and tissue, and in normal and cancer settings. However, it is unclear whether the splicing imbalance of this exon is associated with cancer risk. Here we identify a common genetic variant in intron 10, rs5820483 (NC_000017.11:g.43095106_43095108dup), which is associated with exon 11 isoform expression and alternative splicing, and with the risk of breast cancer, but not ovarian cancer, in BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers. The identification of this genetic effect was confirmed by analogous observations in mouse cells and tissue in which a loxP sequence was inserted in the syntenic intronic region. The prediction that the rs5820483 minor allele variant would create a binding site for the splicing silencer hnRNP A1 was confirmed by pull-down assays. Our data suggest that perturbation of BRCA1 exon 11 splicing modifies the breast cancer risk conferred by pathogenic variants of this gene.
Keywords: BRCA1; breast cancer; isoform; risk; splicing; variant.
© 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.