Will sex-specificparasite exposure lead to sexually antagonistic immune trait fitness optima? Despite female stickleback encountering parasites at a higher rate, De Lisle and Bolnick found no evidence of sexual conflict related to their primary immune trait. Both male and female fish suffered high costs of infection and immune response on reproduction. If costs of both immunity and infection are high and concordant, the sexual conflict will not arise despite different parasite exposure rates.
© 2021 The Authors. Evolution © 2021 The Society for the Study of Evolution.