All You Need To Know and More about the Diagnosis and Management of Rare Yeast Infections

mBio. 2021 Aug 31;12(4):e0159421. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01594-21. Epub 2021 Aug 24.


Invasive infections with emerging yeasts such as Geotrichum, Saprochaete/Magnusiomyces, Trichosporon, and other species are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Due to the rarity and heterogeneity of these yeasts, medical mycology has lacked guidance in critical areas affecting patient management. Now, physicians and life scientists from multiple disciplines and all world regions have united their expertise to create the "Global guideline for the diagnosis and management of rare yeast infections: an initiative of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology in cooperation with the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology and the American Society for Microbiology." Recommendations are stratified for high- and low-resource settings and are therefore applicable worldwide. The advantages and disadvantages of various diagnostic methods and treatment options are outlined. This guideline reflects the current best-practice management for invasive rare yeast infections in a range of settings, with the intent of establishing a global standard of care for laboratorians and clinicians alike.

Keywords: ASM; ECMM; ISHAM; Malassezia; Pseudozyma; Rhodotorula; antifungal therapy; invasive fungal infection; invasive microorganisms; yeasts.

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Mycology / methods
  • Mycoses / diagnosis*
  • Mycoses / drug therapy
  • Mycoses / pathology
  • Rare Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Rare Diseases / microbiology*


  • Antifungal Agents