Validation of the Finnish FACE-Q for use in patients undergoing surgery for functional problems or malignancy

J Plast Surg Hand Surg. 2022 Oct;56(5):270-276. doi: 10.1080/2000656X.2021.1964981. Epub 2021 Aug 24.


The aim of this study was to produce a Finnish version of the FACE-Q scales Satisfaction with Forehead and Eyebrows, Adverse effects: Forehead, Eyebrows and Scalp, and Adverse effects: Cheeks, Lower face and Neck, and assess the performance of these scales and the Satisfaction with Facial Appearance, Satisfaction with Outcome and Appearance-related Psychosocial Distress in patients who had undergone surgery for functional problems or malignancy affecting the forehead or cheeks. The general health-related outcomes instrument 15 D was used as a reference. Patients who had undergone a frontal lift, a direct brow lift, a facelift or an excision of a facial tumor in Helsinki University Hospital plastic surgery department in 2009-2019 were identified. A postal survey study was conducted with 305 patients, of whom 135 (44%) responded. Diagnoses included facial nerve dysfunction (53%), brow ptosis (21%) and skin, mucosal or salivary gland tumor (20%). The FACE-Q scales displayed high internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas ≥0.80) and good reliability on repeat administration. The exploratory factor analysis revealed unifactorial influences for all scales except the Adverse effects: Forehead, Eyebrows and Scalp. Weak correlations with 15 D dimensions were detected. The FACE-Q scales evaluated here are suitable for use in patients with functional problems or malignancy.

Keywords: FACE-Q; brow lift; facelift; facial nerve palsy; patient-reported outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Eyebrows
  • Finland
  • Forehead / surgery
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Rhytidoplasty* / methods