Mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) turn out to be a promising source of cell-free therapy. Here, we investigated the biodistribution and effect of nebulized human adipose-derived MSC-EVs (haMSC-EVs) in the preclinical lung injury model and explored the safety of nebulized haMSC-EVs in healthy volunteers. DiR-labelled haMSC-EVs were used to explore the distribution of nebulized haMSC-EVs in the murine model. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced murine lung injury model was established, and survival rate, as well as WBC counts, histology, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured to explore the optimal therapeutic dose of haMSC-EVs through the nebulized route. Twenty-four healthy volunteers were involved and received the haMSC-EVs once, ranging from 2 × 108 particles to 16 × 108 particles (MEXVT study, NCT04313647). Nebulizing haMSC-EVs improved survival rate to 80% at 96 h in P. aeruginosa-induced murine lung injury model by decreasing lung inflammation and histological severity. All volunteers tolerated the haMSC-EVs nebulization well, and no serious adverse events were observed from starting nebulization to the 7th day after nebulization. These findings suggest that nebulized haMSC-EVs could be a promising therapeutic strategy, offering preliminary evidence to promote the future clinical applications of nebulized haMSC-EVs in lung injury diseases.
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; healthy volunteers; lung injury; mesenchymal stromal cells; nebulization.
© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Extracellular Vesicles published by Wiley Periodicals, LLC on behalf of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles.