A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies Evaluating the Effect of Medication Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder on Infectious Disease Outcomes

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 2;8(8):ofab289. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofab289. eCollection 2021 Aug.


The opioid epidemic has fueled infectious disease epidemics. We determined the impact of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) on treatment outcomes of opioid use disorder (OUD)-associated infectious diseases: antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral suppression, hepatitis C virus (HCV) sustained virologic response, HCV reinfection, new hepatitis B virus infections, and infectious endocarditis-related outcomes. Manuscripts reporting on these infectious disease outcomes in adults with OUD receiving MOUD compared with those with OUD "not" receiving MOUD were included. Initial search yielded 8169 papers; 9 were included in the final review. The meta-analysis revealed that MOUD was associated with greater ART adherence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-2.15) and HIV viral suppression (OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.88-2.56). One study suggested a positive association between MOUD and HCV sustained virologic response. There is significant support for integrating MOUD with HIV treatment to improve viral suppression among persons with HIV (PWH) and OUD. Treatment of OUD among PWH should be a priority to combat the opioid and HIV epidemics.

Keywords: HCV; HIV; endocarditis; medication treatment; opioid use disorder.

Publication types

  • Review