A hybrid thermal management system for high power lithium-ion capacitors combining heat pipe with phase change materials

Heliyon. 2021 Aug 12;7(8):e07773. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07773. eCollection 2021 Aug.


Lithium-ion capacitor (LiC) technology is an energy storage system (ESS) that combines the working mechanism of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) and lithium-ion batteries (LiB). When LiC is supposed to work under high power applications, the inevitable heat loss threatens the cell's performance and lifetime. Therefore, a proper thermal management system (TMS) can remove the generated heat of the LiC during high cycling conditions. In this paper, a hybrid TMS (HTMS) using phase change materials (PCM) and six flat heat pipes is proposed to maintain the temperature profile below 40 °C under a high current rate of 150 A for 1400 s profile without any pause. Two K-type thermocouples (T1 & T2) are responsible for monitoring the experiments' temperature evolution in the experiments. Numerical analysis is also performed and verified with experimental results to analyze the temperature profile numerically. The experimental and numerical simulation comprises three case studies, including the cell's temperature under natural convection, temperature distribution when using the heat pipe TMS, and temperature distribution when using HTMS. The results reveal that the HTMS is an exceptionally robust cooling system since it reduces the T1 temperature by 35% compared to the natural convection case study, while the heat pipe TMS can reduce the T1 temperature by 15% compared to the same case study.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD); Heat pipe; Hybrid thermal management system (HTMS); Lithium-ion capacitor (LiC); Phase change material (PCM).