Cardiovascular Health Disparities in Racial and Other Underrepresented Groups: Initial Results From the All of Us Research Program

J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Sep 7;10(17):e021724. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.121.021724. Epub 2021 Aug 25.


Background All of Us is a novel research program that aims to accelerate research in populations traditionally underrepresented in biomedical research. Our objective was to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in broadly defined underrepresented groups. Methods and Results We evaluated the latest data release of All of Us. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis combining survey and electronic health record data to estimate the prevalence of CVD upon enrollment in underrepresented groups defined by race, ethnicity, age (>75 years), disability (not able to carry out everyday physical activities), sexual orientation and gender identity lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA+), income (annual household income <$35 000 US dollars) and education (less than a high school degree). We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and product terms to test for interaction. The latest All of Us data release includes 315 297 participants. Of these, 230 577 (73%) had information on CVD and 17 958 had CVD (overall prevalence, 7.8%; 95% CI, 7.7-7.9). Multivariate analyses adjusted by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index, and smoking indicated that, compared with White participants, Black participants had a higher adjusted odds of CVD (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.16-1.27). Higher adjusted odds of CVD were also observed in underrepresented groups defined by other factors, including age >75 years (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.81-1.99), disability (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.53-1.68), and income <$35 000 US dollars (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.17-1.27). Sex significantly modified the odds of CVD in several of the evaluated groups. Conclusions Among participants enrolled in All of Us, underrepresented groups defined based on race, ethnicity and other factors have a disproportionately high burden of CVD. The All of Us research program constitutes a powerful platform to accelerate research focused on individuals in underrepresented groups.

Keywords: All of Us; cardiovascular disease; disparities research; myocardial infarction; stroke.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / diagnosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Ethnicity*
  • Female
  • Gender Identity
  • Health Status Disparities*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Population Health*
  • Racial Groups*
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology