Protocols for Synthesis of SNIPERs and the Methods to Evaluate the Anticancer Effects

Methods Mol Biol. 2021:2365:331-347. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-1665-9_18.


Inducing degradation of undruggable target proteins by the use of chimeric small molecules, represented by proteolysis-targeting chimeras, is a promising strategy for drug development. We developed a series of chimeric molecules, termed "specific and nongenetic inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-dependent protein erasers" (SNIPERs) that recruit IAP ubiquitin ligases to induce degradation of target proteins. SNIPERs also induce degradation of some IAPs, including cIAP1 and XIAP, which are antiapoptotic proteins that are overexpressed in many cancers. Such protein degraders have unique properties that could be especially useful in cancer therapy. This chapter describes (1) the design and synthesis of SNIPER compounds, (2) the methods used for the detection of target protein degradation and ubiquitylation, and (3) the protocol to evaluate the antitumor activity of SNIPER.

Keywords: Cancer; Degradation; SNIPER.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Proteolysis
  • Ubiquitination


  • Ligands