Natural history and progression of transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy: insights from ATTR-ACT

ESC Heart Fail. 2021 Oct;8(5):3875-3884. doi: 10.1002/ehf2.13541. Epub 2021 Aug 25.


Aims: Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is a progressive, fatal disorder that remains underdiagnosed. The Tafamidis in Transthyretin Cardiomyopathy Clinical Trial (ATTR-ACT) was the first large clinical trial to include both wild-type (ATTRwt) and hereditary (ATTRv) patients. A description of the natural history of ATTR-CM, utilizing data from placebo-treated patients in ATTR-ACT, will provide a greater understanding of presentation and progression of ATTR-CM and may aid in disease awareness, earlier diagnosis and treatment monitoring.

Methods and results: Changes in clinical endpoints (mortality, cardiovascular [CV]-related hospitalizations, 6-min walk test [6MWT] distance and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary [KCCQ-OS] score) from baseline to Month 30 in the 177 patients (134 ATTRwt, 43 ATTRv) who received placebo in ATTR-ACT were assessed. ATTRwt patients tended to have less severe disease at baseline. Over the duration of ATTR-ACT, there were 76 (42.9%) all-cause deaths, and 107 (60.5%) patients had a CV-related hospitalization. There was a lower proportion of all-cause deaths in ATTRwt (49, 36.6%) than ATTRv (27, 62.8%). There was a similar, steady decline in mean (SD) 6MWT distance from baseline to Month 30 in ATTRwt (93.9 [93.7] m) and ATTRv (89.1 [107.2] m) patients. The decline in mean (SD) KCCQ-OS score was less severe in ATTRwt (13.8 [20.7]) than ATTRv (21.0 [26.4]) patients.

Conclusions: Patients with ATTR-CM experience a severe, progressive disease. In ATTR-ACT, placebo-treated patients with ATTRv, compared with ATTRwt, had more severe disease at baseline, and their disease progressed more rapidly as shown by mortality, hospitalizations and quality of life over time.

Keywords: Clinical trial; Hereditary; Progression; Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy; Variant; Wild-type.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial*
  • Cardiomyopathies* / diagnosis
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Prealbumin / genetics
  • Quality of Life


  • Prealbumin