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, 60 (2-3), 267-76

Two Gene Duplication Events in the Evolution of the Human Heat-Stable Alkaline Phosphatases

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Two Gene Duplication Events in the Evolution of the Human Heat-Stable Alkaline Phosphatases

B J Knoll et al. Gene.

Abstract

There are at least three alkaline phosphatase (AP) isoenzymes in man: a heat-stable placental enzyme (PLAP), a less heat-stable intestinal form (IAP), and the very heat-labile AP enriched in liver, bone and kidney. In addition to these enzymes, there is a heat-stable activity in the thymus and testis that is similar but not identical to the PLAP (the PLAP-like enzyme). Previous work has demonstrated a close structural relatedness among the IAP, PLAP and PLAP-like enzymes. Thus, it is possible that there are three human genes encoding heat-stable AP enzymes. To test this hypothesis, we have used a PLAP cDNA clone to screen a human genomic library cloned into the phage vector lambda EMBL-3. Three sets of clones were isolated, each bearing a distinct coding region homologous to the PLAP cDNA probe. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 5' ends of these genes allowed comparison of their derived peptide sequences and positive identification of two of the genes. One of the genes encodes the PLAP (the PLAP-1 gene), another encodes the IAP, and a third closely resembles the PLAP-1 gene, but is distinct from it (the PLAP-2 gene). The PLAP-2 gene is highly homologous (greater than 95%) with the PLAP-1 except in the first exon, where sequences encoding the hydrophobic signal peptide are nearly identical with the same region of the IAP gene. These results demonstrate the existence of a small family of PLAP-related genes which is the result of at least two duplication events during the descent of man.

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