Inhibitory effect of traditional herbal (kampo) medicines on the replication of human parainfluenza virus type 2 in vitro

Drug Discov Ther. 2021 Sep 22;15(4):180-188. doi: 10.5582/ddt.2021.01059. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Abstract

Thirteen herbal medicines, Kakkonto (TJ-001), Kakkontokasenkyushin'i (TJ-002), Hangekobokuto (TJ-016), Shoseiryuto (TJ-019), Maoto (TJ-027), Bakumondoto (TJ-029), Hochuekkito (TJ-041), Goshakusan (TJ-063), Kososan (TJ-070), Chikujountanto (TJ-091), Gokoto (TJ-095), Saibokuto (TJ-096), and Ryokankyomishingeninto (TJ-119) were tested for human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) replication. Eight (TJ-001, TJ-002, TJ-019, TJ-029, TJ-041, TJ-063, TJ-095 and TJ-119) out of the thirteen medicines had virus growth inhibitory activity. TJ-001 and TJ-002 inhibited virus release, and largely inhibited genome, mRNA and protein syntheses. TJ-019 slightly inhibited virus release, inhibited gene and mRNA syntheses, and largely inhibited protein synthesis. TJ-029 slightly inhibited virus release, largely inhibited protein synthesis, but gene and mRNA syntheses were unaffected. TJ-041 only slightly inhibited virus release, the gene and mRNA syntheses, but largely inhibited protein synthesis. TJ-091 largely inhibited gene, mRNA and protein syntheses. TJ-095 largely inhibited gene synthesis, but NP and HN mRNAs were slightly detected, and protein syntheses were observed. TJ-119 inhibited gene, mRNA and protein syntheses. TJ-001, TJ-002, TJ-091, TJ-095 and TJ-119 inhibited multinucleated giant cell formation derived from cell-to-cell spreading of virus. However, in TJ-019, TJ-029 and TJ-041 treated infected cells, only small sized fused cells with some nuclei were found. TJ-019 and TJ-041 slightly disrupted actin microfilaments, and TJ-001 and TJ-002 destroyed them. TJ-041 slightly disrupted microtubules, and TJ-001 and TJ-002 disrupted them. In general, the medicines effective on common cold and bronchitis inhibited hPIV-2 replication.

Keywords: negative-strand RNA virus; recombinant green fluorescence protein-expressing hPIV-2 without matrix protein; virus replication.